Our Okinawan Karate History

Ryukyu Kenpo Kobujutsu Kai

琉球 拳法 古武術 会

Some Great Teachers in Our Lineage

Some Facts


First: Although modern Ryukyu Kenpo has many Chinese influences, its origin lies in the mists of Okinawan history and folklore. One of the main problems in researching the origins, lies in the paucity of written records and conflicting oral traditions. Fragmentary records indicate it may have been practiced in some form more than 2,000 years ago.

One thing we can be certain of: Bodhidharma (Ta Mo, Da Mo, Daruma) did not bring Chinese Boxing to the Shaolin monks, from India, in 649CE. This is a modern 20th century myth. There is no written reference concerning his involvement with anything other than introducing Chan (Zen) Buddhism to China. All else is pure fabrication. On a secondary note: It has often been claimed that a second Shaolin monastery was built in Chiu-Lien-Shan, P'u-T'ien-Hsien, Fu-Chou-Fu, Fukien province. There is no evidence that this temple ever existed, and in fact the Chiu-Lien-Shan is located in Kwantung province. A Chinese scholar named Hsu K'o wrote the Ch'ing Pai Lei Chao in 1917. This work is a 48-volume collection of folk tales and fables which includes stories of the Heaven and Earth Society [Triads] which refer to the legendary Fukien Shaolin Temple. Unfortunately, some martial arts historians have regarded Hsu K'os work as history and have used it as a source.

Ryukyu Kenpo's development appears to have been influenced by the early immigration to Okinawa by members of defeated Japanese clans (in 1185 and again in 1333) and the many cultural exchanges between China and Okinawa from the 13th to 19th centuries. In Okinawa, Ryukyu Kenpo's techniques were developed in great secrecy. Taught only to the landed nobility, it was the domain of the professional warrior class and their families, until modern times.

Another myth that needs to be put to rest - the theory that Okinawan peasants fought the Japanese Samurai using their native fighting skills.

  1. The Japanese never had more than a few dozen Samurai stationed on Okinawa at any one time due to the island's acquiescence to Japanese rule.
  2. All of the original teachers of Ryukyu Kenpo (Karate) were, in fact, the nobility of Okinawa - or - as the Japanese would have called them - "Samurai".
  3. Many of what the Japanese thought were "peasant" farmers, merchants, fishermen were the sons of noble families. These imaginary battles never happened.

Next:

The terms Shuri-te, Naha-te, and Tomari-te are made up names! These fake names were created by a festival committee to celebrate Crown Prince Hirohito's visit to Okinawa in the early 1900s. Shuri, Naha and Tomari were separated by less than an hour's walk, and today, they are all in Naha City. The reason for the names was to eliminate the Chinese connection to the arts; and was arbitrarily assigned to the various styles based on the participants' training locations. The Okinawan karate-ka were originally concerned with practicality over style. Funakoshi referred to his art simply as karate, and insisted they were all basically the same. The Japanese, concerned with lineage (style) beyond anything else, would have not been impressed by a nameless art. And, now!

Our history!

(As best as we can figure it out!)

Sakugawa, Kanga

Sakugawa, Kanga

Sakugawa, Kanga (佐久川 寛賀)

(1733-1815)

Was the major contributor to the development of Te, the precursor to modern Karate.

What we Know:

In 1750, Sakugawa began his training as a student of a Ryūkyūan monk, Peichin Takahara. After six years of training, Takahara suggested that Sakugawa train under Kusanku, a Chinese master in Qūanfa. Sakugawa spent six years training with Kusanku and began to spread what he learned to Ryūkyū in 1762. He became such an expert that people gave him, as a nickname: "Tōde" ("Chinese Hand") Sakugawa. His most famous student was Matsumura, Sōkon.



Matsumura, Sōkon

Matsumura, Sōkon

Matsumura, Sōkon (松村 宗棍)

(1809-1899)

was one of the original karate masters of Okinawa. The dates on the plaque at Matsumura's tomb, put there by Matsumura's family, clearly state that he was born in 1809 and died in 1899.

His Early Background:

Matsumura Sōkon was born in Yamagawa Village, Shuri, Okinawa. Matsumura began the study of karate under the guidance of Sakukawa Kanga.3 Sakukawa was an old man at the time and reluctant to teach the young Matsumura, who was regarded as something of a troublemaker. However, Sakukawa had promised Kaiyo Sōfuku, Matsumura Sōkon's father, that he would teach the boy, and he did. Matsumura spent five years studying under Sakukawa. As a young man, Matsumura had already garnered a reputation as an expert in the martial arts.

Matsumura was recruited into the service of the Shō family, the royal family of the Ryūkyū Kingdom in 1836 and received the title Shikudon (also Chikudun Pechin), a gentry rank. He began his career by serving the 17th King of Ryūkyū's second Shō dynasty, King Shō Kō. In 1838 he married Yonamine Chiru, who was a martial arts expert as well. Matsumura eventually became the chief martial arts instructor and bodyguard for the Okinawan King Shō Kō. He subsequently served in this capacity for the last two Okinawan kings, Shō Iku and Shō Tai. Matsumura traveled on behalf of the royal government to Fuzhou and Satsuma1. He studied Qūanfa in China as well as other martial arts and brought what he learned back to Okinawa.

His Teachings:

He was the first to introduce the principles of Satsuma's swordsmanship school, Jigen-ryū, into Ryūkyū kobujutsu; and, he is credited with creating the foundation for the bōjutsu of Tsuken. He passed on Jigen-ryū to some of his students, including Ankō Asato and Itarashiki Chochu. The Tsuken Bō tradition was perfected by Tsuken Seisoku Ueekata of Shuri.2

Matsumura is credited with passing on the Shōrin-ryū Kenpō-karate kata known as Naihanchi I & II, Passai, Seisan, Shintō, Gojūshiho, Kusanku (the embodiment of Kusanku's teaching as passed on to Sakugawa) and Hakutsuru.

(The Hakutsuru kata contains the elements of the Fujian White Crane system taught within the Shaolin system which was created by Fang Qiniang after destroying the gang who murdered her father Fang Zhonggong (Fang Shiyu). Lin Shixian was a Master of Black Crane and Eighteen Fist Monk Boxing. One of his Masters was Fang Zhonggong. He helped train Fang Quinang to defeat the gang who killed her father. Kwan Pang Yuiba (1828-1912) became master of Shaolin White Crane in the temple and supplanted Black Crane in 1837 as the official Temple Crane style, he was first student of Fāng Qīniáng.)

His Legend and Tremendous Legacy:

Matsumura was given the title "bushi" meaning "warrior" by the Okinawan king in recognition of his abilities and accomplishments in the martial arts. Described by Gichin Funakoshi as a sensei with a terrifying presence, Matsumura was never defeated in a duel, though he fought many. Tall, thin, and possessing a pair of unsettling eyes, Matsumura was described by his student Ankō Itosu as blindingly fast and deceptively strong. His martial arts endeavors have been the progenitor of many contemporary karate styles: Shōrin-ryū, Shotokan, and Shitō-ryū, for example. Ultimately, all modern styles of karate that evolved from the Shuri area lineages can be traced back to the teachings of Bushi Matsumura. Of note, his grandson was the modern Tōde master, Tsuyoshi Chitose, who assisted Gichin Funakoshi in the early introduction and teaching of karate in Japan and who founded the Chitō-ryū style.

Footnotes


(1) Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2.
(2) Hokama, Tetsuhiro (2005). 100 Masters of Okinawan Karate. Okinawa: Ozata Print.

Itosu, Anko

Itosu, Anko

Itosu, Anko (糸洲 安恒)

(1831-11 March 1915)

is considered by many the father of modern karate.

It was Itosu who first started teaching karate to the public and was one of the teachers of Gichen Funakoshi (who many know as the father of Japanese karate), as well as many other founders of the karate we know today. He was the creator of the Pinan kata series, and he modified of many other kata practiced throughout karate today.

His Early Years:

Itosu was born in the Gibo section of Shuri (the capital city), Okinawa. His first name was Anko (the Kanji for which may be alternately read in Japanese as Yasutsune and his last name Shishu read as Itosu). He is probably most commonly known by the name Anko Itosu. He was born to a prominent family and was well educated in the classics of Chinese literature.

Descriptions of him vary, and there are no known photos. He was short by modern standards, but in Okinawa at the time his approximately five feet of height was average. Some sources describe him as stocky, barrel chested and very strong. He also had immense discipline.

After taking and passing civil service exams, he became a clerk for the Ryukyu government. At least one source states he was a secretary to the last King of the Ryukyu island chain (of which Okinawa was the capital), Sho Tai (the monarchy was ended in 1879 when the islands officially became part of Japan).

It was through the assistance of his good friend Anko Azato1 that he rose to a position of prominence in Ryukyu governmental administration. This was a bond of friendship that existed throughout their lives, and they are often described together by Gichin Funakoshi, who studied under both masters. By all accounts he was built strongly, and there are many tales of his incredible punching ability.

The Controversy:

The early training of this martial legend is shrouded in mystery. Many martial historians refer to Itosu as having been a disciple of the Great Sokon "Bushi" Matsumura.

Was Itosu the link to this heritage, an interpreter of Matsumura's karate? This appears to be incorrect, or at least overstated.

How do we ascertain the truth when so much of martial history is based on oral accounts and opinions? While we may never know the truth, we should look to accounts of those who, trained under Itosu for significant periods of time.

Motobu, Choki

Motobu, Choki

One such account comes from Choki Motobu (one of Okinawa's greatest early twentieth century karate masters) who spent eight to nine years under Itosu. In his 1932 book, "Watashi no Tode Jutsu", Motobu is quoted as saying: "Sensei Itosu was a pupil of Sensei Matsumura, but he was disliked by his teacher for he was very slow (speed of movement). There (in the dojo) for although Itosu sensei was diligent in his practice his teacher did not care about him so he (Itosu) left and went to sensei Nagahama".

According Motobu, while Sensei Nagahama was quite well known and very diligent, his method or idea of teaching was entirely different from master Matsumura. Nagahama stressed just building of the body. Apparently Itosu adjusted well and trained hard, for Motobu reports that Nagahama referred to Itosu as his disciple and "right hand man". It must have been a shock when Nagahama told Itosu on his deathbed (as reported by Motobu), that he had only taught him strength building and had never once given thought to actual combat. In other words, his method lacked the idea of liberty in motion and alertness in action, and therefore he wanted him to go back to master Matsumura.

Itosu had learned much from Nagahama. It is likely that through his instruction many of the seeds were planted for using Tode (an early name for karate) as a method of physical and mental strengthening. These seeds combined with Itosu's unique perspective and experience came to fruition in the Okinawan school system as a method of developing the youth of Okinawa.

Itosu likely realized, as Nagahama suggested, that he needed further training in combative principles. It would have been highly unlikely for Itosu to return to the Matsumura, however, since he had previously left him. The question then becomes, "Where did Itosu go next?"

Funakoshi, Gichen
Gichin Funakoshi (船越 義珍) (1868-1957) As Motobu put it, "Funakoshi's Karate is like a Shamisen (the 3 stringed Okinawan guitar), beautiful sound, but hollow on the inside"

If we look at the words of Gichin Funakoshi who is regarded as a top student of both Azato, Anko and Itosu, Anko, we find that Itosu, Anko became a disciple of Gusukuma of Tomari! (sometimes known as Shiroma).

On page 18 of his text (reprinted as "Tote Jutsu" in 1925) Funakoshi states, "It is confirmed through written documents and collections that Azato followed Matsumura and Itoso followed Gusukuma, according to what has been told through generations."2 In his later text, "Karate-do Kyohan" (page 8, 1973 edition), Funakoshi says again that "It is stated that masters Azato and Itosu were students of Matsumura and Gusukuma respectively. Masters Azato and Itosu were the teachers who instructed this writer and to whom the writer is greatly indebted.3

Thus, through the combined weight of the statements made by two direct long-term students of Anko, Itosu (Motobu and Funakoshi), we can logically come to the conclusion that Shishu, Anko (Itosu, Anko) began his training under Matsumura, left to become a disciple of Nagahama of Naha (a seaport city near Shuri, the capital), and upon Nagahama's death became a disciple of Gusukuma of Tomari.

This would explain the inclusion of the Tomari (a seaport village near the capital Shuri)4 kata Rohai and Wanshu within the Itosu curriculum. Sokon Matsumura was not known to have taught or passed on these forms.

To explain the presence of these kata in the Itosu curriculum, other historians have theorized that Itosu, as student of Matsumura, must have therefore trained briefly, side by side, with Kosako Matumora of Tomari sometime after 1873. But, the more logical explanation is to assume that Motobu and Funakoshi are correct in stating that Itosu had studied with Gusukuma. He was a Tomari instructor, and both kata are recognized as Tomari kata.

Itosu continued to teach Wanshu as well as Rohai, which developed into three versions based on the original Tumaidi (Tomari-te) prototype.

Then there is the kata Seisan. It was a kata taught by Soken Matsumura. If Itosu's primary karate teacher had been Matsumura, surely, he would also have taught this kata. But he did not. An explanation for the absence of Seisan can be found in the existing Tomari te (Tumaidi) traditions. For example, the continuing Tomari traditions as were passed down through the Oyadomari brothers of Tomari5 as well as those of the Matsumora ha Tumaidi (Tomari te) as passed down to Tokashiki Iken6. also lack the kata Seisan, as does the To-de passed on by Itosu. Seisan was not a Tomari kata7.

In any event all the forms Itosu apparently borrowed from the Tomari curriculum appear to have been heavily altered when compared to the existing Tomari traditions. Given the existing Tumaidi forms, one can see that Itosu utilized the sum of the knowledge given to him and further altered it to reflect his experience and objectives.

It is also interesting to contrast Itosu's kata and how they are performed as compared to the kata of Tomari (Tumaidi) as practiced today.8 When one compares the kata of Tumaidi9 with those traced to Anko Itosu, one is struck by the greater use of open hand techniques and the more upright stances in the Tomari tradition. The kata themselves are performed with a much more relaxed and lighter feel. There is also greater emphasis placed upon the use of koshi (hip area) - the lower back/hips/pelvic girdle move in more of a figure eight pattern and on multiple planes as opposed to rotating around a horizontal axis as is found in the Itosu heritage.

In his book "Okinawan Karate: Teachers, Styles And Secret Techniques", Mark Bishop contrasted the karate of Azato (Matsumura heritage mixed with a swordsmanship perspective) and Itosu: “While Azato believed the hands and feet should be like bladed weapons and that one should avoid all contact of an opponent’s strike, Itosu held the idea that the body did not have to be so mobile and should be able to take the hardest of blows. Chosin Chibana (a long-time student of Itosu) once said that Itosu indeed have a very powerful punch, but Matsumura had once said to Itosu: "With your strong punch you can knock anything down, but you can't so much as touch me".

Itosu's Legacy:

It is through the efforts of this "Father of Modern Okinawan Karate" that many basic exercises and forms were simplified and organized into a curriculum suitable for the mass instruction of students. In addition to placing importance on basics, Itosu took the Channan forms he had previously devised (or had been taught him, according to historians), altered them slightly and renamed them Pinan, which he thought would be more appealing to students. This is evidenced in such journals as "Karate No Kenkyu" by Nakasone Genwa 1934 and "Kobo Kenpo Karate-do Nyumon" by Mabuni Kenwa and Nakasone Genwa 1938. Let it never be said that Itosu lacked enthusiasm, for he didn’t stop at the Pinans. He went on to supplement Naifanchi by the creation of a Nidan and Sandan (Kinjo 1991, Murakami 1991) and possibly Kusanku Sho and Passai Sho (Iwai 1992) as well!

Even though questions persist about Itosu's lineage, there is no doubt about the profound and universal impact he had on the development of karate in Okinawa.

It was Itosu who brought Karate from the shadows into the light of public study.8 In 1901 he began instructing karate at the Shuri Jinjo Primary school (Iwai 1992, Okinawa Pref. 1994) and taught at the Dai Ichi middle school and the Okinawa Prefectural Men's Normal School in 1905 (Bishop 1999, Okinawa Pref. 1994, 1995).

Perhaps one of the greatest testaments to the skill of this karateka is that he developed such a group of superb students, who in turn promoted his art. The karate that descended from Itosu represents one of the great Okinawan karate heritages known as Shorin-Ryu. His students comprise a virtual "who's who" of the founding fathers of modern karate. They include: Kentsu Yabu, Chomo Hanashiro, Jiro Shiroma, Chojo Oshiro, Shigeru Nakamura Anbun Tokuda, Moden Yabiku, Kenwa Mabuni, Gichin Funakoshi, Chosin Chibana, Moden Yabiku, and Choki Motobu (who contrary to popular stories spent some eight years of training under Itosu).

Spreading the Word:

In October of 1908 Itosu realized it was time for Karate to reach beyond the shores of Okinawa to the heart of Japan itself. It was to this end that he wrote his famous letter of Ten Precepts (Tode Jukun) to draw the attention of both the Ministry of Education as well as the Ministry of War. After demonstrations were held for several naval vessels, the most important of which was the 1912 visit of Admiral Dewa, karate emerged as an attractive vehicle for developing young fighting men for the imperialistic Japanese government of the period.

On January 26, 1915 a great light in the martial world was extinguished when Anko Itosu drew his last breath at the age of eighty-five. It is a shame that he did not live to see the art he so vigorously propagated achieve its world-wide popularity, and to see his crusade vigorously pursued on the mainland by his student Gichen Funakoshi.

Footnotes


(1) Ankoh Azato was a scholar-warrior who came from a well-known Okinawan family of wealth. Socially he held an honorable rank equivalent to that of a lower Daimyo in Japanese society. Since childhood he excelled in both the martial arts (archery, Jigenryu swordsmanship and karate under Soken Matsumura) and in literary studies, including Chinese studies. As a politician he became Minister of State and was one of the best-known political figures of his time. As a karateka he was known for his awesome strength, but also for his intuition - the ability to sense an attack and destroy it before it fully developed.
(2) Also, Funakoshi said: Sakiyama, Gushi and Nagahama of Naha trained under Buken (Shorei ryu). Matsumura of Shuri (the Okinawan capital city) and Maesato of Kume (a town near Shuri populated by Chinese, many whom where translators, teachers of Chinese classics as well as martial arts) trained under Tomoyori (Shaolin ryu) Shimabuku of Uemondono, Hikashi of Kyunenboya, Seneha, Kuwae and others trained under Kojo (Shorei ryu), and that Shiroma (also read Gusukuma) of Tomari (a small port city near Shuri the capital) , Kaneshiro, Matsumora, Yamasato and others trained under Taika, who originated from the Fukushu-an-nan (a province in China. However, Oyakata-Tomigusu of Shuri followed Sakiyama.
(3) Funakoshi also said, "The teacher of Gusukuma, Kanagusuku, Matsumora, Oyatomari, Yamada, Nakazato, Yamazato and Toguchi, all of Tomari, was a southern Chinese man who drifted ashore at Okinawa". Furthermore, it was stated, "In more recent times Master Tomigusuku received his training from Sakiyama".
(4) Historians often group Okinawan karate traditions of this time around the town in which they were practiced -- Shuri the capital, and Naha and Tomari which were both seaports. Tomari traditions, with a few notable exceptions, have either been lost or partly absorbed into the curriculums practiced by the descendants of the Shuri and Naha traditions.
(5) The curriculum of the Oyadomari Brothers was provided by Mark Bishop’s interview of Seikichi Hokama (Student of Kotsu and Konin Oyadomari) contained on page 73 of his book "Okinawan Karate: Teachers, Styles and Secret Techniques (1991)".
(6) The curriculum Matsumora ha Tumaidi can be assessed by what is taught by Toakashiki Iken, student of Seiyu Nakasone who was in turn the top student of Kodatsu Iha, disciple of Kosaku Matsumora, from an interview with Richard Florence on February 12, 1997 for the Bugeisha Magazine article, "Tokashiki Iken" and the "Gohakukai".
(7) Then there is the question of the kata Jion, Jiin and Jitte in the Itosu curriculum. Since they are not found in the curriculum of Tomarai traditions, Itosu could have learned them from either Gusukuma or Nagahama, either of which would have created them. It is perhaps a question for which we may never know the answer for sure, but which begs further scrutiny.
(8) Karate had for centuries been taught in secret in Okinawa.
(9) As taught by the students of Tokashki Iken, who was a student of Seiyu Nakasone, who in turn studied under Kodatsu Iha, a top student of Kosaku Matsumora.

REFERENCES


"Chanan: The Lost Kata of Itosu" (article), by Joe Swift
"Unante: The Secrets of Karate" (book), by John Sells
"Tales of Okinawa's Great Masters" (book) by Shoshin Nagamine
"Karate no Kenkyu" (book), by Nakasone Genwa
"Kobo Kenpo Karatedo Nyumon" (book), by Mabuni Kenwa and Nakasone Genwa
"Okinawan Karate Teachers, Styles and Secret Techniques" (book), by Mark Bishop

Motobu, Choki

Motobu, Choki

Choki Motobu (本部 朝基)

(1870-1944)

Choki Motobu, was one of Okinawa's greatest early twentieth century karate masters; and, the most colorful. He was also the least understood and probably the most maligned.

Motobu was the third son in a great Okinawan family that had enjoyed privilege and landed nobility (Motobu peninsula), but which was largely ended by Japanese annexation of the island, modernization and social reorganization. A strong ox of a man with a will and ego to match, Motobu preferred the tough and tumble, practical karate over the pure practice of kata. Like many of his day, Motobu was not raised speaking Japanese nor was he schooled in the mainland's sophisticated etiquette and ways.

When he traveled to Japan this worked to his detriment and contributed to misunderstanding about him. He was at a comparable disadvantage to the like of Gichen Funakoshi, an educator, who spoke Japanese and was well versed in Japanese social skills. The two could not have been more different, like oil and water, with no love lost among their adherents. Funakoshi had been selected to give the first official demonstration of karate in Japan and whose intellectual approach gained him notoriety and a dedicated following. In contrast Motobu was more concerned with effective technique and fighting skills. And while he influenced many karateka in Japan, he never developed a large karate organization around his teaching as did Funakoshi.

Growing Up:

Choki Motobu was born on April 5, 1870. His father, Anji (Lord) Motobu Chōshin, was a descendent of Prince Shō Kōshin (1655-1687), the sixth son of Okinawan King Shō Shitsu (1629-1668). Due to this lineage the male members of the family were permitted to retain the “CHO” character in their given names (Sells 1996). Young Choki, as third son to Choshin, was regarded by the Okinawan culture of the day as the rough equivalent to a feudal lord in social status. It has been stated by the noted historian Kinjo Hiroshi that although Choki was fathered by Choshin, Choki's mother was not his wife, but a courtesan. Choki was thus only a half-brother to Choyu (本部朝勇) 1857-1928 the eldest son in the family. It has been further suggested that he was consistently reminded of this fact as a child, and this may have contributed to his temperament.

Motobu, Choyu

Motobu, Choyu

Choki's eldest brother Choyu, in the Okinawan tradition, was given a fine education. He was also taught the family's secret Udun-ti, also known as Goten-te, (the precursor to modern karate), which was passed down within the Shō royal family from father to eldest son. Choyu then studied under the legendary Matsumura Sōkon. In his final years, he was the head martial arts instructor to the last king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom, Shō Tai (r. 1848-1879), succeeding Matsumura in that position. A tradition that was only passed on to the eldest son. A young Choki was never allowed to participate. By some accounts, however, Choki secretly looked on at his elder brother's training and picked up many rudiments of the art.

Choki grew up with his mother. He was considered a strong child with a willful and fiery temperament, but athletically gifted and agile. His agility earned him the name "Motobu no Saru Umei" (Monkey Motobu) for his ability to climb and swing in trees. At the age of four Choki was forced to begin attending school, but by his own account he hated studying and would often sneak off to play with friends1.

Contrary to popular myth the legacy of Karate jutsu (karate whose emphasis is focused on effective technique) left by Choki (as distinct from his family tradition passed down through his brother) is alive and well, having been preserved by his son Chosei. It is through the works of Tsukuo Iwai, a top student of Chosei, and, a historian in his own right, that we obtain further glimpses passed down about the early years of Choki Motobu. Choki and his two brothers would often hit the makiwara and practice karate by imitation beginning at a very early age. Initially his training came via a relative who frequently visited the home. This Kobujutsu Master known as Ufuchiku (an old term roughly equivalent to police superintendent) would be immediately greeted at the door by Choki, who would say "let's practice Ti!". (Iwai 1994).

Ufuchiku was none other than the legendary Sanda Kanagusuku, a very close friend of Bushi Matsumura (the best-known karate master of his time and teacher of Itosu). It is perhaps through him and his vast experiences in law enforcement that gave the basis for Choki's appreciation of the practical side of Karate.

Upon reaching his teen years Choki and Choyu both began training under Itosu (the great karate teacher who first introduced karate into the Okinawan school system), although the karate historian Mark Bishop states that he was eventually asked to leave because of his attitude of always trying to prove himself. Some sources also say he was a student of Bushi Matsumura. But despite his training, Choki could never seem to best his brother at hindi2 (an older term for Kumite) which caused Choki to devote himself even more to training (Iwai 1994).

As reported in the 1934 journal, Karate no Kenkyu, Choki explained, "I was interested in the martial arts since I was a child and studied under many teachers. I studied under Itosu Sensei for seven to eight years". He went on to train with Matsumura Soken, Sakuma of Gibo and Kosaku Matsumora of Tomari (Iwai, 1994).

The common tales referring to Choki Motobu as a student of "no one", are, thus, less than accurate. If we take at face value that Choki spent two years living and training with Matsumora of Tomari (Sells 1996), then Motobu had nine to ten years of formal training without even considering the time spent with Kanagusuku (as a child) Sokon Matsumura and Sakuma of Gibo!

The greatest amount of time and the greatest impressions upon Motobu were made by Itosu, Sakuma, and Kasoku Matsumora, for it is these men that he mentioned when asked during the 1936 meeting of the masters (Trans. McCarthy 1994).

Choki Motobu's Time:

Twenty-five years, or so, into the new twentieth century found Japan rising to the drumbeat of nationalism. Her victories over China in 1895 as well as Russia in 1905, followed by the official annexation of Korea in 1910, set the stage for militarism and pride in all things Japanese.

The Karate-do that Gichin Funakoshi had brought from Okinawa and had begun to teach in the Japanese capital was developing strong roots, and by April 12, 1924 he had awarded the first dan ranks in Karate do (Sells 1996) to those who would serve as his cadre. It was a difficult task for this Okinawan gentleman, teaching what was essentially a foreign martial art on mainland Japanese soil. But with the aid and inspiration of Jigoro Kano (the founder of judo) and later the Dai Nippon Butokukai (Great Japan Martial Virtues Association founded in 1895 to preserve and promote the martial arts and ways), Karate-do would find its history carefully sanitized and the art repackaged in the image of Judo, Kendo and many other art forms. This was necessary for its acceptance into the Japan of the day. Karate do would now be a gentleman's art whose ultimate purpose was self-cultivation. There was no room for the Bushi (Samurai) of yesteryear, nor the heavy handed.

Improving His Art:

Having been exposed to so many brilliant masters of the day and at such a young age, Motobu's concepts of martial applications must have grown by leaps and bounds. It is through the research of Shoshin Nagamine in his book, "Tales of Okinawa's Great Masters", that we know that Motobu at the age of about seventeen approached a well-known wrestler by the name of Komesu Magi (then thirty-two and considered to be the biggest and strongest wrestler on Okinawa), asking him for a match.

Komesu was apparently very reluctant to engage someone of Motobu's high social standing but relented when Choki insisted he merely wished to compare the differences between Karate and wrestling techniques. Motobu is said to have come away from this experience having learned about the strengths and limitations of Karate technique. If this account can be accepted as true, and there is no reason to doubt it, then Choki at the tender age of seventeen had a pretty fair knowledge of karate technique and was beginning his journey of self-discovery.

Following his twentieth birthday, having gained confidence in his skills and perhaps motivated by his budding manhood, Choki visited the Tsuji Machi (known as the Red-light district) to test his skills against those of similar ilk.

It is here where Motobu reputedly suffered perhaps his only real defeat, against Itarishiki (Iwai 1994), a fight that he would review night after night in his head. Nevertheless, return Motobu did, and he would later recount, "I started having real fights at Tsuji when I was young and fought over a hundred of them, but I was never hit in the face". According to Nagamine, Motobu was never known to start a fight, but was also never known to run from one. From these matches Motobu gained tremendous experience and adopted many practical techniques into his repertoire of skills.

Perhaps we should not judge Motobu so harshly, for in the words of Kenei Mabuni (the son of the great karate master and founder of Shito-ryu karate): "In his younger days many people would challenge my father to Kake-dameshi (challenge match) or an exchange of techniques after they heard he was practicing Te. He accepted these challenges and would choose a quiet corner of town for the match".

Kenwa Mabuni himself recalled, "A young man, he taught himself to fight independently as he had no Sensei for this. He attempted to prove himself by challenging many famous Sensei. Of course, the Sensei would all refused his challenge and he returned home proud that these teachers were all afraid of him, not realizing they refused for his sake!"

While these accounts are interesting and obviously designed to discourage violence, it appears that they may be less than totally honest. It would be slightly naive to believe that no Kake-dameshi between two men trying to prove themselves ever escalated or that blood was never drawn. While Motobu was certainly no saint he was perhaps unjustly vilified for failing to conceal a part of his past that perhaps many more are guilty of than care to admit! It is further interesting to note that if Motobu was truly the barbaric anomaly he is often portrayed to be, by 1918 he was a respected member of an informal study group comprised of his brother Choyu, Chojun Miyagi, Shinpan Gusukuma and Chotoku Kyan (Sells 1996).

Choki Motobu's Kata:

Although it is often alleged that Motobu knew only the kata Naihanchi Shodan and possibly Passai, in light of recent developments, this appears to be a complete misinterpretation of Motobu's knowledge and method of teaching. It was quite a common practice in the old days to begin a student training with Naihanchi kata and only when he mastered it to a degree considered sufficient was a new form taught. This seems to be corroborated through the words of Konishi Yasuhiro (as told by Yamazaki Kiyoshi in an article on Konishi)4: "Konishi Sensei considered Motobu to be a martial genius and made every effort to train with him. Motobu Sensei's favorite Kata was the Naifanchin kata (another pronunciation of Naihanchi). As a teacher he knew many Kata but would only teach them once the student had mastered Naifanchin".

Given Motobu's vast knowledge of Naihanchi, the applications of which were forged through actual altercations, it likely took a significant period of time to progress to another kata with him. Thus, many of the modern stories which recount Motobu as knowing or having shown only the kata Naihanchi are told by those having trained for less than a year with him!

Further proof of Motobu's knowledge of other Kata comes inadvertently from Motobu himself. Motobu is quoted by Nakasone Genwa as describing a visit to Itosu Sensei (Itosu was perhaps the most famous karate teacher of his time) as follows: "I visited him one day near the school, where we sat talking about the martial arts and current affairs. While I was there two to three students dropped by and sat talking with us. Itosu Sensei turned to the students and said, "Show us a kata!" The Kata they performed was very familiar to the Channan Kata that I knew but there were also some differences. Upon asking the students what the kata was, he replied, "It is Pinan no Kata!". The students left shortly after that, upon which I turned to Itosu Sensei and said, "I learned a Kata called Channan, but the Kata that those students just performed now was different, what is going on? Itosu Sensei replied, "Yes, the kata is slightly different but the kata that you just saw is the kata that I have decided upon". (Nakasone 1934)

While it has been speculated that Motobu never learned the Pinan kata (sometimes known as Heian), it appears now that this information may be correct. Motobu learned from Itosu before Itosu had fully developed the Pinans, a time when the kata were still practiced in their prototype form.

We further know that Choki Motobu passed on a significant array of kata which are part of the curriculum as maintained by his son Chosei. They include Naihanchi Shodan and Nidan, Channan (the predecessor of the pinan kata which within the Motobu system are called Shiraguma no Kata), Passai, Wanshu, Wankan, Chinto, Kusanku, Chinti and others. This demonstrates that Motobu was far more knowledgeable in terms of the kata than many have given him credit for.

The Move to Japan:

In 1923 (Iwai 1994; other sources say 1921), perhaps to find greener pastures, Motobu moved with his family to the city of Osaka on mainland Japan. Not long afterwards he returned briefly to Okinawa for three months which he spent training with his brother Choyu. This was when a nineteen-year-old student of Choyu, by the name of Seikichi Uehara, first met Choki. Uehara recalled having Choki for a training partner: “Every time I punched, Choki hit my arm before I could touch him. He hit it so hard he almost broke my arm" (Uehara 1992).

Soon after Choki returned to Osaka, he obtained a job as a security guard. This was no small feat for someone who reputedly never learned to speak Japanese in any fluent fashion. We must remember, however, that Motobu was nobility by birth and perhaps as an act of personal defiance (which was not unheard of in those days, something also done by the karate legend Hohan Soken), he refused to humble himself and learn what was to him a foreign tongue.

In November of 1924 (Iwai 1994) an event took place which brought Choki to the attention of many on mainland Japan. On his day off from work at the factory, Choki and his landlord saw a sign advertising a challenge match with boxers in Kyoto and decided to go. Having viewed several matches where the boxer (reputed to be a European boxing champion) defeated several judo people, Motobu accepted the challenge himself. He entered and felled the much larger boxer.

Motobu would later recount to students: "When I fought the foreign boxer in Kyoto, he was taller than me, so I jumped up and punched him in the face. This is effective against people who are taller than you".5 This did much to stimulate Motobu’s reputation (according to Iwai) and many began to seek him out for instruction.

Another source (Choso Nakama quoted in the book, "Okinawa Karate" by Mark Bishop) recounted that Motobu had at first just dodged the boxer. But in the second round the boxer came on strong. Motobu hit him (after jumping up) with a typical “Ti” (old term for karate) technique, a knuckle strike behind the ear.

Becoming Famous:

At fifty-two years of age and after putting his honor and reputation on the line, Choki finally began to attract the attention he truly deserved. Choki formed the Society for the Promotion of Toudijutsu (an old term for karate).

...

1925 King Magazine depictions

It certainly must have been a shock to Motobu, however, when in the following September (1925) an article appeared in Kingu magazine describing his bout with the boxer.

The picture accompanying the article, however, was not of him. Instead it was a drawing of none other than Gichen Funakoshi, shown as felling the boxer.

It was rumored by those close to Motobu that he was angry about this misrepresentation, but felt quite helpless against the resources of company the size of Kodansha (which owned Kingu). Perhaps he felt Funakoshi himself or one of his college student Karateka (where many journalists began) was behind the error.

In any event, there was certainly some bad blood between them and this incident may very well have played a part in Motobu's decision to go to Tokyo and seek out Funakoshi.

Although many stories exist about a confrontation between the two6, I am unable to find any confirmed accounts giving specifics of the battle. David Chambers, however, in a Tsunami video tape, "Wado Ryu the way of peace and harmony", claims that: "Yasuhiro Koneshi reported that a newspaper carried the story of a fight that took place between the two in 1930. When Funakoshi finally faced his nemesis, his feet were instantly swept from beneath him and he suffered the indignity as he lay at Motobu's feet of having his face menaced with the latter's enormous fist".

Whatever the facts of this story, Motobu was beginning to attract attention. Several judoka and wrestlers sought him out to learn fighting skills. Two of Funakoshi's top students (Hironori Ohtsuka and Koyu Konishi) also left to train with Motobu. The defection further added to the deterioration of relations between the two teachers. Another karateka to seek out Motobu was Kose Kuniba (known as Kosei Kokuba in Okinawa).

Interest in the testing of karate fighting skills was perhaps understandable since in Japan at that time, judo (a synthesis of old jujutsu self-defense systems) and kendo (old warrior sword arts modified into a sporting form) had been adopted into the Japanese education curriculum and were popular. Both offered competition formats. The attraction of practice fighting thus naturally bled over to many young karateka who sought to test their skills or develop effective technique in their own art.

The true feelings between Motobu and Funakoshi may never truly be known. But, it can be assumed that Funakoshi (a well-educated school teacher who spoke Japanese and was well versed in Japanese social customs) may have regarded Motobu to be densely illiterate. He was also probably irritated by the fact that Motobu was higher placed in the old Okinawan class system. Motobu in turn probably regarded Funakoshi as a mere confidence man, someone who had learned only the most superficial aspects of karate and kata and was not a strong fighter.

If Motobu's intent in traveling to Tokyo was to drive Funakoshi out, he didn't succeed. Funakoshi had been there a bit too long and Motobu's lack of linguistic ability surely limited his ability to communicate.

Technique
Application of a Naihanchi Move

To Motobu's credit he did manage to author two rather excellent books on Karate. It has been put forth by Chozo Nakama (a disciple of Chosin Chibana) that these works were dictated and translated into proper Japanese for publishing. This is only logical since Motobu didn't speak more than pigeon Japanese.

The first book, "Okinawa Kempo: Karate-Jutsu On Kumite" was published in 1926. It came just four years after Funakoshi produced the first published book on karate. Funakoshi's book (1922 and updated with photos instead of drawings in 1924) illustrated mostly kata and formalized self-defense. The two books couldn't have been more different.

Funaksohi's book reflected his own personal preference of kata as a principal teaching method and his opposition to focusing on sparring. He considered it detrimental to karate practiced as a martial way.

Technique
Another Application of Naihanchi Moves
Naihanchi Kata
Naihanchi Kata

Motobu's book was just the opposite. Its focus was on fighting - effective close-in skills as illustrated in this photo. Featured were a series of practical responses to variety of attacks. Utilized were a variety of punches, vital point and unbalancing techniques accompanied by grabs, blocks, knees and strikes using both arms. Kicks, it should be noted, were minimal.

In 1932 Motobu published a second book, "Watashi no Karatejutsu" ("My karatejutsu") which served as a natural complement to his first. This book focused on illustrating his favorite kata, Naihanchi, along with many applications, some of which had been adopted and illustrated in his first book. Notice that this photograph from his book illustrating a move from the kata Naihanchi illustrates the same stance and technique as used in a fighting technique (above photo) illustrated in his first book


Returning Home to Okinawa:

1936 Meeting
Meeting of the Masters - 1936 in Okinawa

Choki Motobu returned to Okinawa several times, most notably for the 1936 meeting of the masters sponsored by the Ryukyu Shinposha (Okinawa newspaper company). The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the promotion and future development of Karate (McCarthy 1994).

Other attendees included such other karate masters as Chojun Miyagi, Choshin Chibana, Chomo Hanshiro, Yabu, Kentsu, Shinpan Gusukuma, Juhatsu Kiyoda and Chotoku Kyan7.

Motobu was respected both as a person and a martial artist during his lifetime. After his death, however, negative rumors and stories circulated (perhaps propagated by those who feared him in life). He is often described by those who knew him, however, as a quiet man who presented the very picture of dignity.

Choki Motobu died in August 1944


Concepts of Tuidi (Karate):

The following are but a few of the noted concepts Choki Motobu expressed to his students; and are recorded by Hashihiko Nakata as overseen by Kenji Marukawa (a direct student of Choki Motobu) from the 1978 essay "Motobu Choki Sensei Goroku" (Collection of sayings by Choki Motobu) as partially translated by Joe Swift.

"Everything is natural and changing.

Kamae is in the heart, not a physical manifestation.

One must develop the ability to deflect attack; even from behind.

In a real confrontation, more than anything else strike to the face first, as this is most effective.

When punching to the face, one must thrust as if punching through the head.

Kicks are not all that effective in a real confrontation.

When blocking kicks, one must block as if trying to break the opponents shin.

One must try and block the attack at its source (block not the attacking hand but deeper on the arm).

One can not use continuous attacks against true Karate. That is because the blocks of Karate make it impossible to launch a second attack".

Motobu's Legacy:

While Motobu never became as famous as Funakoshi, around whom Shotokan karate and its many offshoots developed, he did leave a rich karate heritage in the Osaka, Kyoto and Gunma areas of Japan. While he never organized his own system, he did play a positive role in the development of several karateka who went on to become famous in their own right. This included Yasuhiro Konishi (who also studied with Funakoshi) who founded Shindo Jinen Ryu in 1934 and Kose Kuniba who founded Seishinkai Karatedo in 1934. Another student was Hironori Ohtsuka (also a well-known student of Funakoshi) who went on to found Wado-ryu karate with a curriculum that stressed practice fighting, something that reflected Motobu's influence.

Choki Motobu's son, Chosei, also continues to teach his father's tradition of karate. The style is known as Nihon Denryu Heiho Motobu Kenpo and the name of his individual dojo is the "Daidokan".

Between the publication of his second book and his return to Okinawa in 1936, there is little information. But, there is one fascinating reference. It is recorded that he traveled to Hawaii in March of 1932 and encountered visa problems. Refused entry, for about a month he was detained at Honolulu immigration station before being returned to Japan.

While in Hawaii Motobu began to instruct Thomas Shigeru Miyashiro, a resident who tried to help Motobu with his visa problems. This started a continuing relationship with Motobu, who is reported to have asked both Mizuho Mutsu and Kamesuke Higashionna to continue to help train Miyashiro when they traveled to the island the next year. This relationship was later continued by Choki's son. Chosei (along with Takeji Inaba) visited Hawaii Karate Seinenkai on April 25, 2001.


Footnotes


(1) As noted in the text "Motobu Choki Sensei:Goroku" by Hashihiko Nakata 1978
(2) This brotherly competition was the most likely source of rumors regarding fights between Choyu and Choki. There is nothing to corroborate them as being anything more serious and this was further regarded as highly implausible by Seikichi Uehara as mentioned by Richard Florence in Vol 5 Number 3 1996 in his personal interview with Richard Florence M.A.
(3) As noted in the text "Motobu Choki Sensei:Goroku" by Hashihiko akata 1978.
(4) As recounted in a special article for Dragon Times Vol. 9, The Origins of Karate-do, “Shindo Jinen Ryu Karate,” Yasuhiro Konishi Sensei’s contribution to Karate by Howard High (Note: The Dragon Times in its printed version of its publication erroneously attributed the authorship of this article to Kiyoshi Yamazaki, an error corrected in the Web version of the article).
(5) As noted in the text "Motobu Choki Sensei: Goroku" by Hashihiko Nakata 1978.
(6) In Nakata's 1978 book, which was overseen by Choki's direct student Kenji Marukawa, Motobu recounts the following statement: "When I came to Tokyo, there was another Okinawan there who was teaching Karate quite actively. When in Okinawa I hadn't even heard his name. Upon guidance of another Okinawan I went to the place where he was teaching youngsters, where he was running his mouth, bragging. Upon seeing this, I grabbed his hand, took up the position of Kake kumite and said, "What will you do?" He was hesitant, and I thought to punch him would be too much, so I threw him with Kote Gaeshi at which he fell to the ground with a thud. He got up, his face red and said "Once more" so we took up the position of Kake Kumite again, and again I threw him with Kote Gaeshi. He did not relent and asked for another bout, so he was thrown again for a third time".
(7) It was at this meeting that the masters agreed to the change of the first character ("Kara") in the name karate to mean "empty", rather than "Chinese" (both characters are pronounced the same) which had been the most widely used meaning up to that time. This was an important change because "empty hand" was a much more acceptable meaning of the term karate in xenophobic Japan than "Chinese hand". This change was an important factor in the widespread adoption of karate on the Japanese mainland.

REFERENCES


Koden Ryukyu Karatejutsu (Tokyo Airyudo 1994) by Iwai Tsukuo (partial translation by Joe Swift)
"Channan: The 'Lost' Kata of Itosu?" (Insights into the Martial Arts, NZ, in press) by Joe Swift. Also an article featured by FightingArts.com.
"Unante The Secrets of Karate", by John Sells (1996)
Motobu Choki Sensei Goroku (Collection of sayings by Choki Motobu) by Nakata Hashihiko, overseen by Marukawa Kenji 1978 (partial translation by Joe Swift)
Tales of the great Okinawan Masters by Shoshin Nagamine (Translation by Patrick McCarthy)
The minutes of the 1936 meeting of the masters as translated by Patrick McCarthy 1994 and found in "The Ancient Okinawan Martial Arts: Koryu Uchinadi 2", by Patrick McCarthy
Bu No Mai: Ryukyu Oke hiden Bujutsu: Motobu ryu Udundi (Dance of the Martial arts: The secretly taught arts of the Okinawan Kings' family: Motobu-ryu Udundi) by Uehara Seikichi (October 1, 1992) Tokyo: BAB, Japan Printing bureau.